American Indian Treaties

        "This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the land."

                                             Article VI, clause 2, of the United States Constitution


         Between 1778 and 1871, the United States entered into more than five hundred treaties with American Indian nations.  Of those, some 371 compacts and agreements were ratified by the United States Senate, as require by the U.S. Constitution.  Each of these treaties is protected as the 'supreme law of the land' under Article VI, Clause two, of the national charter.

         Below, you will find a number of important treaties cited by the date they were negotiated, with a brief summary of what is covered in the treaty.  Each citation is linked to the complete text of the treaty, as compiled by Charles J. Kappler, and printed by the Government Printing Office in Washington D.C.   Also, many of these treaty documents are on file in the National Archives.


To view a complete list of Indian treaties by tribal name, click here.

To view a complete list of Indian treaties by date, click here:        


A Partial list of Treaties with American Indian Nations


(First Treaty Era)

1778 - Treaty with the Delawares

Summary: A treaty of peace and perpetual friendship in which all offenses are mutually forgiven.  In case of war, each party will assist the other.  The United States will have free passage to forts r towns of their enemies, and such warriors as can be spared will join the troops of the United States.  Neither part will inflict punishment without an impartial trial, nor protect criminal fugitives.  The United States guarantees all territorial rights as bound by former treaties.  The tribes will have representation in Congress (on certain conditions)


1784 - Treaty with the Six Nations

Summary: Hostages to be given till prisoners are delivered up.  Lands and boundaries are secured, and annuities offered to the Indians for peace and friendship.


1785 - Treaty with the Wyandot

Summary: Tribe acknowledge protection of the United States, mutually agreed upon boundaries, and no citizen of the U.S. will settle on Indian owned lands.  Indians recognize the U.S. title to certain lands.  Robbers and murderers are to be delivered to United States.


1786 - Treaty with the Chickasaw

Summary: Peace and friendship between the Chickasaw and the U.S. will be perpetual.  Indians restore prisoners and property and acknowledge the protection of the United States, which recognizes Indian boundaries.  No citizen of the U.S. will ever settle on Indian lands, and Indians promise to deliver up criminals, while whites committing crimes against Indians will be punished.  Retaliation will be restrained, and the U.S. will regulate trade.


1789  - Treaty with the Six Nations

Summary: Reffirms the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, though the Mohawks are excepted from this agreement.  Old boundary is confirmed to both the U.S. and the Six Nations.  Peace and friendship is renewed, and robberies and murders will be punished according to the law.


1791 - Treaty (of Holston) with the Cherokee

Summary: Peace and friendship will be perpetual between the Cherokee and the U.S.   Prisoners will be exchanged, boundaries of homelands confirmed, and the U.S. will regulate trade.  No U.S. citizen can settle on Indian land, nor hunt on the same.  Citizens of the U.S. committing crimes in Indian territory will be punished.  Animosities are to cease, and the U.S. will give the tribe presents upon ratification.


1794 - Treaty with the Oneida

Summary:  $5,000 to be distributed for past losses.  Mills to be built by the U.S., and millers to be provided.  $1,000 given to build a church, and Indians relinquish further claims.


1796 - Treaty with the Seven Nations of Canada

Summary: Cession of lands to the State of New York in consideration for payments, and setting aside permanent Indian reserve.


1796 - Treaty with the Creeks

Summary: Boundary lines to be run, trading posts to be established, and chiefs to attend the running the line with Spain.  Boundary line to be established between Choctaws and Chickasaws, prisoners to be given up, and presents to be given to the Indians.


1797 - Treaty with the Mohawk

Summry: Agents of New York to Pay the Mohawk deputies $1,000 and expenses, while Mohawks cede all right to lands, forever.


1802 - Treaty with the Seneca

Summary: Cession of lands, and boundaries described.


1803 - Treaty with the Kaskaskia

Summary: Land cession to the United States, Indian land boundaries fixed, while the U.S. takes the Kaskaskias under their protection.


1804 - Treaty with the Piankeshaw

Summary:  Cession of land to the U.S. with acknowledgment of the right of the Kaskasias to sell certain lands.  Annuity to be paid for ten years.


1804 - Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes

Summary: Indians are taken under the protection of the United States, and boundaries of tribal lands are fixed.  Annuities are to be delivered to the tribes every year, and intruders on Indian lands to be removed.  Indians may hunt on lands ceded to U.S. (usufructory rights); trading houses to be established by authorized traders.


1805 - Treaty with the Delawares

Summary:  Delawares agree to relinquish their claim to land in exchange for a permanent annuity to be given to them and the Miamies, who, it is agreed, will not part with any of their territory in Ohio without consent of all parties.


1805 - Treaty with the Choctaw

Summary: Cession of lands to the U.S., creation of a reservation, and payment to certain Indians for past services  Boundaries re-established.


1805 - Treaty with the Sioux

Summary: Small cession of land on the St. Croix river for the purpose of establishing military posts, granting full sovereignty and power over those districts forever, in exchange for $2,000 and goods and merchandise as they shall choose.  The Indians retain their rights to hunt and fish "as they have formerly done, without any other exception" (usufructory rights)


1808 - Treaty with the Osage

Summary:  A fort is to be built and annuities will be kept there, along with a blacksmith who will be furnished by the U.S.  Merchandise to be delivered and money paid once boundaries are established.  Lines to be run by the U.S., and hunting grounds will be preserved and protected by the U.S.  Osages promise not to supply arms to Indians not friendly to the U.S.


1808 - Treaty with the Chippewa

Summary: A tract of land is granted for an easement for the purpose of building a road.  Lines of boundaries to be run by the U.S..  The privilege of hunting and fishing on lands ceded is maintained by the trubes, and the Indians acknowledge the protection of the U.S.


1809 - Treaty with the Kickapoo

Summary: Kickapoos agree to second article of treaty of Sept. 30, 1809, including a cession of land to the U.S. in exchange for annuities.


1814 - Treaty with the Creeks

Summary: Cession of territory by the Creeks to pay for the expenses they incurred in the war of 1812.  Intercourse with British and Spanish to cease.  Establishment of military posts, and all property taken to be surrendered.  The prophets and instigators of the war to be given up, and supplies of corn will be presented to the Creeks.  New boundaries will be drawn, and peace will be permanent.


1815- Treaty with the Potawatomi

Summary:  Injuries will be forgiven, and peace and friendship between the Potawatomi and the U.S. will be perpetuals.  Prisoners to be delivered up, and former treaty to be recognized and confirmed.


1815- Treaty with the Teton

Summary: Injuries between parties, forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship begins with this treaty, which also recognizes the protection of the U.S.


1815 - Treaty with the Yankton Sioux

Summary:  Injuries are forgiven, peace and friendship begins with the protection of Indian people by the U.S.


1815 - Treaty with the Makah

Summary: Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship recognized, and protection of the U.S. acknowledged.


1815 - Treaty with the Kansa

Summary: Injuries forgiven on both sides, peace and friendship to be perpetual, and the protection of the U.S. acknowledged.


1816 - Treaty with the Cherokee

Summary: Cession of land by Cherokees to the state of South Carolina, and bounds of the cession.  U.S. to engage South Carolina for a payment of $5000 in consideraton.


1816 - Treaty with the Ottawa

Summary: Cession of land to the U.S., consideration given, claims relinquished by the U.S., peace and friendship affirmed


1817 - Treaty with the Menominee

Summary: Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship promised, former land cessions and treaties confirmed, prisoners to be delivered up, and the protection of the U.S. acknowledged.


1817 - Treaty with the Oto

Summary: Injuries forgiven, peace and friendship exchanged, protection of U.S. acknowledged.


1817 - Treaty with the Ponca

Summary: Injuries forgiven, peace and friendship exchanged, protection of the U.S. acknowledged.        


1818 - Treaty with the Quapaw

Summary: Protection of the U.S. acknowledged with the cession of lands and the creation of a reservation.  The Quapaws reserve usufructory rights to hunt and fish in ceded territory, and no white people may settle on reserved lands.  Payment in goods will be made for ceded lands, no private revenge for injuries by individuals; offenders will be delivered up for punishment.


1818 Treaty with the Grand Pawnee

Summary:  Injuries forgiven, perpetual peace and friendship established and protection of the U.S. acknowledged.


1818 - Treaty with the Osage

Summary: Land cession to the United States, as defined, and the U.S. to pay for losses sustained by the Osage.


1818 - Treaty with the Miami (removal)

Summary:  Cession of lands by the Miamis and establishment of a reservation for the exclusive use of the Miami people.  Miami assent to the cession by the Kickapoo in consideration for payment made to the Miami by U.S..  A gristmill, sawmill, etc., will be provided to the Miami by the U.S., in addition to 160 bushes of salt annually.


1823 - Treaty with the Florida Tribes of Indians  (removal)

Summary:  Indians confined to their homelands.  U.S. to take Florida Indians under their care, and guarantee peaceable possession of the district assigned to them.  Corn and meat to be supplied for one year and an agent will live among them.  Indians to prevent fugitive slaves from taking shelter.


1825 - Treaty with the Hunkpapa Band of the Sioux

Summary:  Supremacy of the United States acknowledged on condition that the U.S. receive them under their protection.  Places for trade to be designated by the President and chiefs to exert themselves to recover stolen property.  No guns to be furnished by them to enemies of the United States.


1825 - Treaty with the Cheyenne

Summary: Supremacy of the U.S. acknowledged, and places for trade to be designated by the president.  Chiefs to exert themselves to recover stolen property, and no guns to be furnished to any tribe hostile to the U.S.


1825 - Treaty with the Choctaw (removal)

Summary: Lands ceded to the United States, $6,000 to be paid to the Choctaws, annually, forever.  Provisions for Choctaws who may desire to remain on their homelands, and payment for services rendered in the Pensacola campaign.  A agent and blacksmith for Choctaws west of the Mississippi, friendship perpetuated.


1828 - Treaty with the Western Cherokee

Summary: Western boundary of Arkansas define, and territory guaranteed to Cherokee by the U.S..  United States to run survey lines, and Cherokees to surrender lands in Arkansas within fourteen months.  Cost of emigration to be borne by the United States.


1832 - Treaty with the Chickasaw (removal)

Summary: Cession of lands to the United states, and ceded lands to be surveyed; compensation to Chickasaws, and tribe to seek new home west of the Mississippi.  Surveyor-general to be appointed, an preemption of rights to be granted by U.S.  Reduction of price for land, expenses of removal, Chickasaw fund, annuities to chiefs, and list of reservations.  No settlement in Chickasaw country until land is sold.


1832 - Treaty with the Winnebago

Summary: Cession of land to the United States, and cession of land by the United States.  Annuity to the tribe for 278 years, and school to be established and supported by U.S.  Blacksmith shop provided along with rations of bread.  Winnebagoes not to hunt in country ceded.


1832 - Treaty with the Seminole (removal)

Summary: cession to the U.S. of lands in Florida, $15,400 to be paid by the U.S.  Blankets, annuities and a blacksmith to be supplied.  Cattle to be valued, demands for slaves to be settled.  Indians to remove within three years.


1835 - Treaty with the Cherokee (removal)

Summary:  Cherokees to relinquish to the U.S. all of their lands east of the Mississippi.  Additional lands conveyed to the nation, and Osage titles to reservations to be extinguished.  Missionary reservations to be paid for, lands permanently ceded to the nation.  Peace to be preserved, congress may allow a delegate from the Cherokee nation, agents to value improvements made by Cherokee, and President to make investments in productive stock.  Commutation of school fund, provision respecting Cherokees averse to removal; settlement of claims for former reservations, pensions to certain warriors, Indians to remove in two years, preemption rights declared void, expense of negotiations to be defrayed by the U.S.


1837 - Treaty with the Choctaw and Chickasaw

Summary: Chickasaw may form a district in the Choctaw country, boundaries of district and payment for these privileges.


1838 - Treaty with the Iowa

Summary: Cession of land to the U.S. by the Iowa, and consideration therefore.  U.S. to erect ten houses at such places as the Indians may direct.


(Second Treaty Era)

1848 - Treaty with the Pawnee, Grand, Loups, Republicans

Summary: Description of lands ceded to the U.S., and payment of goods in consideration for land.  United States to use timber on Wood river, while friendship and fidelity are pledged by both sides.


1848 - Treaty with the Navajo

Summary:  Navajo agree to be under the jurisdiction of the U.S., and perpetual peace will exist between both parties.   The Navajo to deliver to the U.S. the murderer or murderers of M. Garcia.  Captives and stolen property to be delivered to the U.S. by Oct. 9, 1850.  U.S. citizens committing outrages against Navajos to be subjected to the penalties of the law, and whites are granted free passage through their territory.  Military posts and agencies to be established.  To be binding after signed, and to receive a liberal construction.  Donations, presents, and implements to be given to the tribes for making this agreement.


1851 - Treaty of Fort Laramie (Horse Creek)

Summary: Peace to be observed between all the tribes and the U.S., roads may be established and Indians to be protected from whites by the U.S.  Establishes boundaries of homelands for Sioux, Grosventre, Mandan, Arikara, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne and Arapaho (1.1 million square miles) and recognizes usufructory rights to hunt on traditional homelands.  Head chiefs to be chosen by each tribe, and annuities will be given for making peace and friendship.


1852 -  Treaty with the Apache

Summary: Peace to exist between the tribe and the U.S, and the Apache will not assist other tribes in hostilities.  Good treatment of U.S. citizens, and cases of aggression will be referred to government.  Persons injuring the Apaches to be tried and punished; military posts to be established, and presents to be given to the Apaches.


1853 - Treaty with the Comanche (Thomas Fitzpatrick, commissioner)

Summary: Peace and friendship to exist with the U.S., and with other tribes.  Whites given safe passage through Indian country, captives to be restored, and compensations to be made.  $18,000 per annum to be paid to the tribes if peace is maintained.


1854 - Treaty with the Rogue River (removal)

Summary: Cession of lands in Oregon; Indians to occupy a portion of the ceded land, temporarily; permanent home to be selected, and payment for cessions; agreements to protect travelers, and additional payments on removal; redress for individual grievances.


1854 - Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya (removal)

Summary: Cession of lands to the United States, with a reservation for a residents, and removal from said reserve if it should become expedient; payment for said cessions, and payment for removal; survey and allotment of the reserve, and power of future states over restrictions are limited; annuities not to be taken for debt; provisions against intemperance, roads may be constructed, and merchandise may be part payment of annuities.


1855 - Treaty with the Wallawalla, Cayuse (removal)

Summary: Cession of lands, and established boundaries.  Tribes to settle there in a year, but no whites permitted.  Rights and privileges secure to the Indians, payments made by the U.S., in addition to building a sawmill, schools, mechanics shops, and employing mechanics and teachers; build homes for head chiefs.


1855 - Treaty with the Nez Perce (removal)

Summary: Cession of lands to the U.S., and boundaries established for reservations.  No whites to reside on reservation, and improvements to be made by U.S.  Roads may be made; rights and privleges secured to the Indians.  The U.S. promises to build schools, a sawmill, and a hospital.  Annuities cannot be used to pay debts of individuals; tribes to preserve friendly relations and not to make war except in self-defense.


1855 - Treaty with the Flatheads

Summary:  Cession of land to the U.S., and boundaries established for reservations.  No whites allowed to live there, though roads may be made through reservations.  Rights and privileges of Indians, and payments to be made by U.S., which promises to build schools, mechanic shop, and to pay head chiefs a salary.  Guaranty of reservation against certain claims of the Hudson Bay Company.  Bitter Root Valley to be surveyed and portions set aside for reservation.  These lands not open for white settlement.


1855 Treaty with the Blackfeet

Summary:  Peace to exist with the U.S. and other tribes.  Blackfoot territory recognized as common hunting ground, and no settlements to be made thereon.  How to enter and leave hunting grounds.  Roads, telegraph lines, and military posts, may be established.  Annual payment to be made to Blackfoot nation.  War not to be made on other tribes except in self-defense, criminals to be surrendered; provision against intoxication or the introduction of ardent spirits.


1858 - Treaty with the Ponca

Summary:  Cession of all lands to the U.S., and reservation boundaries established.  U.S. promises to protect the Ponca people from depredations by whites, to maintain schools, and provide saw and grist mills.  Provisions made for half breeds, and scrip for 160 aces of land to issue to each.  Whites not to reside on reservation, and lawful residents of lands hereby ceded may enter 160 acres at $1.25 per acre.  Ponca to maintain friendly relations, to pay for depredations, not to make war, and to surrender offenders.


1863 - Treaty with the Western Shoshone

Summary:  Pease established, depredations to cease; routs of travel established for whites, and military posts or stations approved.  Telegraph lines and overland stage lines approved, as is a railway.  Boundaries of western bands of Shoshoni established.  Provisions made for damages; tribe agrees to the U.S. building roads and establishing military posts.  Grants of land are made to tribes in reparation for outrages against certain bands.


1865 - Treaty with the Cheyenne and Arapaho

Summary:  Establishes perpetual peace with the U.S.; hostilities to be settled by arbitration, and no whites to settle on Indian lands.  Indians not to camp within 10 miles of white settlements, and claims to other lands are relinquished.  Annuities for forty years, when to be delivered, and amount.


1867 - Treaty with the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache

Summary: The Apaches agree to become incorporated with the Kiowa and Comanche.  Annuities, etc., to be shared by the Apache; annual appropriation increased.  Apache promise to keep the peace and to give up certain rights.


1868 - Treaty with the Sioux-Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou,

Summary: War to cease and peace to be kept.  Offenders against the Indians to be arrested, and wrongdoers against the whites to be punished.  Census to be taken; appropriation to continue for thirty years';  Presents for crops, U.S. to furnish physician, teachers; military posts and roads to be built.


1868 - Treaty with the Crows

Summary: Peace and friendship will be maintained on both sides; offenders among the whites to be arrested and punished; Indians to be given up to the U.S. authorities; reservation boundaries established; children between 6 and 16 to attend school; duty of agent, schoolhouse and teachers; seeds and agricultural implements; instruction in farming; annual appropriation in money for ten years; a cow and oxen to each family.


1868 - Treaty with the Nez Perce

Summary: Reservation boundaries, allotments approved, timber to be protected, and money for schools.