White clay domes on the upper Missouri River where Mackintosh visited on a trading expedition in 1773. Painting by George Catlin
contact with the Mandans since the Verendrye expedition.
Scottish trader Mackintosh arrives at one of the Heart River
villages on Christmas day and reports in his journal that the nine
villages could raise 15,000 warriors. He also commented on
the "greatness of the Mandan population, their superior
intelligence and their prowess in war."