1773 - Mackintosh reaches Mandan Villages

White clay domes on the upper Missouri River where Mackintosh visited on a trading expedition in 1773. Painting by George Catlin

        First documented contact with the Mandans since the Verendrye expedition.  Scottish trader Mackintosh arrives at one of the Heart River villages on Christmas day and reports in his journal that the nine villages could raise 15,000 warriors.  He also commented on the "greatness of the Mandan population, their superior intelligence and their prowess in war."