1787 - Constitutional Convention convenes

George Washington addresses the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

         From May to September, the Constitutional Convention meets in Philadelphia to build a charter to replace the Articles of Confederation, which, most agree, have been a failure.

          In September, delegates send the Constitution to the thirteen state governments for ratification.  New York was a hold out to the very end, thanks to the reluctant governor George Clinton. 

          Once ratified, the Commerce Clause gave the federal government sole authority to deal with Indian nations.  This was exactly the same claim made twenty-four years earlier by King George III that enfuriated land speculators such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.